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Wednesday, December 14

  1. page Gods and Myth edited ... Here I try to give an overview of many of the main ones and their purpose in Aztec religion an…
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    Here I try to give an overview of many of the main ones and their purpose in Aztec religion and daily life. Entire papers could be written on any one of these! Many pictures including those from codices and archeological finds are included as I feel they are a great visual tool when learning about the Gods.
    Quetzalcoatl - The Plumed/Feathered Serpent or Precious Twin or Wind God
    {http://www.plu.edu/~westgale/img/quetzalcoatl-human.jpg}{http://www.plu.edu/%7Ewestgale/img/quetzalcoatl-human.jpg} Qutezalcoatl from
    Lord of Healing, Lord of Penitence, magical herbs, poetry and all beautiful things, learning, and the Morning Star (Venus in the daytime). The Morning Star's spirit, Quetzalcoatl as Tlauixcalpantecuhtli, brought the sun up each morning, bringing benefit of the sun to all people, plants, and animals. He is the god of Springtime and rising life due to his self-sacrifice by giving up everything to become the Morning Star. Both a mythical character and a real person - founder of an empire (and of kinship) and a way of life that is more religious than others before. "The breath of Quetzalcoatl is the fertilizing breath of life." He is described as "the one who emerges from the feathered serpent, just as the Morning Star rises from the horizon" (5).
    Also as Quetzalcoatl Ehecatl, or Lord of the Winds, he is depicted wearing a 'wind mask' that covers his lower face with a long pointed snout. This snout was suggestive as the Earth Monster (an alligator/toad creature). As the wind god he is also depicted holding the heaven of waters with his hands above the earth, able to drive the rain with his wind (5).
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    {http://www.mexicovacationtravels.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/templodequetzteotihuacanpixtecamx.jpg}
    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/72/Quetzalcoatl_801.jpg}
    The mythMyth of Quetzalcoatl
    Quetzalcoatl was sent by the supreme god to be an earthly king. He served as king and holy priest and was a good ruler of the people. One day a witch goddess named Tlazoteotl laced a drink with wild mushrooms that he drank at a ceremony. Intoxicated by the wild mushrooms, he slept with her. Ashamed that he had broken sacred traditions, he left Mexico with other creatures and his dwarfs (explains the disappearance of the stars and Venus at sunrise). When he got to the ocean, he built a raft of serpent skins. He set sail into the horizon. When he reached the horizon, he was absorbed by the fire of the rising sun and his heart could still be seen in the solar eclipse. The power behind the witch goddess was Tezcatlipoca who wanted Huitzilopochtli to become patron of the Aztecs. They believed Quetzalcoatl would return one day to overthrow his adversaries. When Cortes and the Spanish arrived from the sea and crossed back through Mexico, many saw that as the fabled return of Quetzalcoatl (5).
    Xolotl - Evening Star {http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/aztecs/skeletonized-deity.gif} Xolotl in skeleton form, Dog God
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    bad luck.
    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fb/Xolotl_1.jpg} Xolotl from codex Fejervary-Mayer
    {http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/aztecs/aztec-xolotl.jpg} Xolotl
    {http://www.corbisimages.com/images/67/BD6F26A8-DAB2-473A-8CDF-D26C831AF867/WF003068.jpg} Xolotl mask
    Tezcatlipoca - Smoking Mirror.
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    lived" (5).
    A god who rules the earth's surface, he had associations with each of the four directions. "In the east, his colour was yellow in honor of the rising sun, and the fruitfulness of the maize plant. The [south] was the Blue Hummingbird [Huitzilopochtli]. In the west his colour was red, and symbolized the blood of sacrifice. In the north was the field of the black Tezcatlipoca, who was the spirit of witchcraft and black magic." (5) He had a role in anything that had to do with magic and sacrifices. He was sometimes called "Titlauacan" meaning "he who is closest to the shoulder" as he was the one responsible for whispering violent or trickster-like thoughts into the minds of all the people by his presence on every shoulder. He was thought to be the most powerful, besides Ometecuhtli the great power, and "overshadowed" all of the other Aztec gods (5). He was the rival of Quetzalcoatl, an example of the dualistic nature of Aztec religion.This nature of opposites is also reflected in Mayan religion. See John Robertson's page on Mayan religion for more information.
    Tezcatilpoca's role as Huitzilopochtli formed the patron god of the Aztecs. Huitzilopochtli was a form of the smoking mirror. It is a difficult concept to understand. The way I see it it was a more personification of the 'shadow' of Tezcatilpoca, an aspect of him as leader of the Aztecs, as hero-idol meant to lead them to the great empire they were meant to have. Huitzilopochtli also led the Aztec ancestors to what would be the center of their empire - the city of Tenochtitlan.
    === {http://www.plu.edu/~westgale/img/tezcatlipoca-depicted.jpg}{http://www.plu.edu/%7Ewestgale/img/tezcatlipoca-depicted.jpg} Tezcatlipoca from
    {http://anthropologynet.files.wordpress.com/2007/06/mosaic-mask-tezcatlipoca-skull-of-smoking-mirror.jpg} Tezcatlipoca mask and skull found
    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cb/Huitzilopochtli_telleriano.jpg} Huitzilopochtli from the Codex Telleriano-Remensis
    Tezcatlipoca's roleRole in the demiseDemise of the
    Tezcatilopca was thought to be the one responsible for the fall of the Toltecs in Tulla. The Toltecs were ruled by the Quetzalcoatls, and Tezcatilpoca sought to overthrow people ruled by his arch-rival.
    He was thought to be the father of the last king of the Toltecs, Huemac, who was in power when Tulla fell. The legend states that Tezcatilpoca came to the market of Tulla with the purpose of tempting the daughter of the high ruler. He shows up naked painted half red and half blue, his penis so beautiful and large and desirable that she could not resist him. She bore an ill-fated son, Huemac, who would live to be in power and see the fall of the Toltecs. After Huemac as in power, Tezcatlipoca was thought to have turned himself into a giant being who rose to defeat the Toltecs. His plan was to cause himself to be killed, and with his huge dead body just laying there to rot, he caused great disease to kill most of the Toltecs (5).
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    Huitzilopochtli - Warrior hero, adopted as patron god to the Aztecs, form of Tezcatlipoca (see above).
    {http://www.class.uh.edu/courses/engl3396/jtchris2/Huitzilopochtli.jpg} HuitzilopochtliHuitzilopochtli can be seen as a kind of alter-ego of Tezcatlipoca (see above) and was described as the Blue Tezcatlipoca. If Quetzalcoatl was "Patron God of the people", Huitzilopochtli was the warrior hero and patron God of the Aztecs and their sacred city, Tenochtitlan. He was an elevated primary figure in Aztec religion... Probably the most important in everyday life. The temples atop the Templo Mayor in the heart of the empire at Tenochtitlan were devoted to Tlaloc and Huitzilopochtli. It is complicated, and tension may have existed among the people as to who they sould devote themselves to: Quetzacoatl, the old Toltec God, or Huitzilopochtli, the one who led them to their beloved city (see above), was responsible for triumph over other tribes, and owed through ritual sacrifice for the rise of the Aztec empire as a whole (5). His name means "Hummingbird on the left" or "Left-handed hummingbird" and if often depicted with feathers around his head and left leg, a black face, and he often holds a snake scepter and mirror (6).
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    Bells - {http://www.ualberta.ca/~csmackay/Coyolxauhqui.jpg}{http://www.ualberta.ca/%7Ecsmackay/Coyolxauhqui.jpg} Coyolxauhqui depicted
    Half-sister to Huitzilopochtli. Associated with the moon. Before Huitzilopochtli was born, he heard that the planets and stars wished to destroy him (their mother, Coatlicue (see below), gave birth to Coyolxauhqui and the stars first and when they found out she was pregnant with Huitzilopochtli and Xolotl they became angry as she was only supposed to give birth to the original pantheon). When he was born he jumped from mother earth prepared to kill all creatures around him. The first thing he met after birth he decapitated instantly, not realizing it was his sister. In a moment of regret, he quickly took the head and threw it up into the sky where the Golden Bell (Moon) would shine more than anything else in the night sky (5). The rising and setting of the sun is representative of the battle between Coyolxauqui and Huitzilopochtli. She is often depicted with bells hanging from her cheeks and a moon-like nose ornament. Her stone depicted to the right became a symbol of Aztec warfare, a threat of dismemberment to all those who wished to destroy them, and was placed at the bottom of the steps in the courtyard of the Templo Mayor in Tenochtitlan.
    Tlaloc - God of Rain
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    wiki on MayanMaya Religion for
    The Four Directions and the Cosmos
    When thinking about religious thinking it is important to know how the directions and their correspondences were viewed in the Aztec world. The sun rose in the east and was also home to the Morning Star, was highest in the south and was home to Mother Earth, set in the west which was the home of the Lord of Jewels, and was not visible in the north which was the Land of the Dead and of maize seed. The sun passing through the sky represented life growing then weakening, and sets into the underworld representing death to be reborn in the morning. The Gods had their homes among the stars in the zodiac signs (5).
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    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7a/M%C3%A1scara_de_Xiuhtecuhtli_Cultura_Azteza-Mixteca_Ars_Summum.JPG} Xiuhtecuhtli {http://www.crystalinks.com/xiuhtecuhtli.gif} Xiuhtecuhtli
    Chalchiuhtlicue- Lady Precious Green/She Who Wears a Jade Skirt
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    the form freshwatersof fresh waters of rivers
    {http://www.mexicolore.co.uk/images-2/262_01_2.jpg} Chalchiuhtlicue
    {http://www.mexicolore.co.uk/images-2/262_00_2.jpg} Chalchiuhtlicue-style nose jewelry
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    Xochipilli was God of royal feasts, games, poetry, dance, music, love, flowers, and maize. In this picture he sits on a platform that represents hallucinogenic plants. The use of hallucinogenic plants were used to speak with deceased ancestors and directly with the Gods. He can be recognized by the flowers on his body and is usually depicted in an animated way (1). His twin sister was Xochiquetzal, Goddess of Love, and his wife was Mayahuel.
    {http://www.calstatela.edu/orgs/mecha/gallery_2/xochipilli.jpg} Xochipilli the Flower Prince
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    quetzal, and accociatedassociated with Xochiquetzal,
    {http://www.vopus.org/en/images/articles/xochipilli-Xochiquetzal.jpg} Xochiquetzal the Aztec Goddess
    Centeotl - Also called Chiomecoatl (1)- Goddess of maize
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    but through hearvestsharvests of maize
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    of the Mayan people.Maya. See Robertson's
    Coatlicue - Mother of Huitzilopochtli and therefore Mother Goddess of all the Aztec people. {http://www.reformation.org/big-coatlicue2.jpg} Coatlicue
    {http://employees.oneonta.edu/farberas/arth/Images/ARTH200/Women/kahlo/coatlicue.jpg} CoatlicueIf Chiomecoatl was associated with Mother Earth, Coatlicue would be like THE Great Mother Earth or mother of the Gods. She is depicted in one of the statues that stood in the courtyard of the Templo Mayor which was destroyed during conquest. Even to this day, people of Mexico offer her fruit and flowers in autumn at the time of the festival and lay them out in the courtyard square. When the courtyard was excivated, they found her statue. Coatlicue had no possessions, she gave of her body to make the world. Rattlesnakes were sheltered in the holes in the ground, so Coatlicue was believed to wear rattlesnake skins and was associated with rattlesnakes as a symbol of her poverty. Her feet and hands are depicted as claws to dig the graves of the earth. Her head was shown as two rattlesnakes facing each other, and her neck is associated with the eagle vases that hold the hearts of human sacrifice. She is shown with a skull over her heart representing the death of her children who return to her. The pain of hard work and living on the earth is associated with her pain of having given birth to all the people of the world. Her statues (as "scary" as they may look) represent gratitude to her for all of her sacrifice to give life and food to the people of the world (5). Coatlicue was the mother of the original pantheon, but angered her daughter Coyolxauhqui when she became pregnant with Huitzilopochtli and Xolotl from catching a ball of feathers and tucking it into her bosom. As the patron of women who die in childbirth, she can also be depicted as Cihuacoatl. The modern-day worship of Our Lady of Guadeloupe has roots in Mexico in the worship of Coatlicue.
    Mictlantecuhtli and Mictlancihuatl -Lord and Lady of the Dead/Gods of the Underworld
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    the underworld.
    {http://theimageandthedeath.files.wordpress.com/2010/11/mictecacihuatl-k.jpg?w=461&h=624} Mictlancihuatl - Lady of Mictlan
    Life After Death : The Underworld - Mictlan
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  2. page The Temples and Rituals edited ... Major Aztec Temples: While many temples are associated with the Aztecs, it is important to re…
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    Major Aztec Temples:
    While many temples are associated with the Aztecs, it is important to remember that the Aztecs were comprised of a Triple Alliance with the Texcoco and Tlacopan who banded together for conquest in creating this "Aztec Empire". Much of the groundwork had already been laid as one of the high tribes, the Atzcapotzalco had "succeeded in subjugating other tribes" through conquest as early as the 14th century, and even more groundwork before that. The Triple Alliance as we knew it formed and took over in 1430 and continued their conquests, taking over Atzcapotzalco regions and beyond. In my Gods and Myth page I chronicle the story of how the Aztecs came to build their city at the cite of Tenochtitlan. The historical chronicles and archaeological evidence suggests that they came to the valley of Mexico after enduring immense hardships. They "found the different city-states engaged in intense military struggles for control of the valley and its resources. The Mexica eventually submitted to the Tepanec lord of Azcapotzalco who extracted tribute from them in exchange to settle..[on the] marshy island in the middle of the lake" (2). If you take a look at the list of places throughout the empire where other temples are found, many of them existed before the Aztecs, and were taken over when the empire expanded.
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    Page on MayanMaya Religion for
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    the Maya.
    Tenochtitlan: Great City and Ceremonial Center
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    four directions.
    For more information on the story of how the Aztecs founded Tenochtitlan and decided upon where to build the great temple, see the section in my Gods and Myth page.
    The Great Temple: The Templo Mayor
    The Templo Mayor stood at the center of Tenochtitlan. It has a pyramid-style base with temples of Tlaloc and Huitzilopochtli situated on the top. According to archaeologist Eduardo Moctezuma, "The Templo Mayor is a precise example of the Mexica views of the cosmos, consisting of sacred mountains which constitute the fundamental symbolic center of the vertical and horizontal cosmos of the Aztec universe" (2). Atop this massive structure, in front of the sanctuaries built for Tlaloc and Huitzilopochtli, was the site where human sacrifice rituals took place.This temple has seven phases of construction, one on top of an expanding the other (5).
    {aztec4figure15.jpg} {Aztec_pyramids_(at_Tenochtitlan).jpg}
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    century (2).
    At the foot of the temple on the side corresponding with Huitzilopochtli lies a great stone depicting his sister Coyolxauhqui. She is decapitated and dismembered, on a platform, conquered. (2) What a powerful message when approaching the temple stairs! The placement of this great stone carving that measures 3.5 meters wide was also symbolic of the fight between Coyolxauhqui and Huitzilopochtli and the great temple as representative of Mt.Coatepec, the site this battle occurred (5). See my Gods and Myth page for more information on the relationship and conflict between Huitzilopochtli and Coyolxauhqui.
    On top of the pyramid, there was a stone-like block (called techcatl) for sacrifice. Sahagun describes it as "a stone three hands in height or a little more and two in width, or almost, and they threw them on their backs." Near these blocks a pool of blood from sacrificial victims was said to exist, and all temples faced west (2).
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    -Tetzcotzinco, east of Tetzcoco in the foothills of Mt. Tlaloc. This site had an impressive aqueduct system and a plaza with monuments and shrines.
    -Tepoztlan, the "place of copper/split stones/axes" was south of Tenochtitlan and houses a pyrimidal complex for Tepoztecatl/Ometochtli.
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    of defense.
    -Calixtlahuaca, the "place of houses on the plain" was southwest of Tenochtitlan in the valley of Toluca and housed a temple for Ehecatl-Quetzalcoatl, a cluster of structured dedicated to Tlaloc, a ball court, and elite schools called calmecac.
    -Coatetelco housed a plaza in the center of a main temple, a palace, and a ball court, as well as some smaller platforms. It is known for being a site that was not destroyed by the Spanish during the conquest.
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    {https://eee.uci.edu/clients/tcthorne/Socec15/azteccalendarstonemi.jpg}
    The top priests in the religious hierarchy were the priests of Huitzilopochtli, Tlaloc, and Quetzalcoatl. Religious rites were associated with the seasons and agriculture,and the calendar's cycle of festivals. All of the rituals were done to appease the Gods so that they may act toward the people favorably and for the maintenance of life in the universe. This includes rituals containing human sacrifice, and most of them had this element (5).
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    of years.
    From Aguilar-Moreno's book Handbook to Life in the Aztec World these are the 18 monthly rituals, corresponding deities, and places performed if known (5):
    1. Atlcahualo: for Tlaloc and Ehecatl, sacrifice of captives and children, performed in the mountains Epcoatl, Pantitlan, Netotiloyan, and Chililico.
    2. Tlacazipehualiztli: for Xipe Totec, Huitzilopochtli, and Tequizin-Mayahuel. Sacrifice of warrior captives or god impersonators (ixiptla), performed during the day at the Temple of Yopico by heart extraction and flaying (removal of skin).
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    heart extraction.
    4.

    4.
    Huey Tozoztli:
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    the day.
    5.

    5.
    Toxcatl: for
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    in Tlacochcalco.
    6. Etzalcualitztli: for Quetzalcoatl and Tlaloc, sacrifice at midnight at the Tlaloc temple atop the Templo Mayor in Tenochtitlan.
    7. Tecuilhuitontli: for Huixtocihuatl and Xochipilli, sacrifice during the day at the Tlaloc temple atop the Templo Mayor in Tenochtitlan.
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    9. Tlaxochimaco: for Huitzilopochtli, Tezcatlipoca, Mictlantecuhtli, and others. Sacrifice of elderly.
    10. Xocotl Huetzi: for Ixcozauhqui, Xiuhtecuhtli, Chalmecacihuatl, Yacatecuhtli, and others. Performed in the Tlacacouan Temple.
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    and decapitation.
    12. Teotleco: for all the gods, especially Xochiquetzal. Sacrificed captives through heart extraction in Teccalco.
    13. Tepeilhuitl: for Matlalcueye, Milnahuatl, and Tlaloc-Napatecuhtli. Sacrifice of boys and two royal women by heart extraction at night and during the day in Centzontotochtiniteopan.
    14. Quecholli: for Mixcoatl-Tlamatzincatl, Izquitecatl, Coatlicue. Sacrifice by decapitation and heart extraction during the day in Coatlan, Mixcoatepan, and Tlamatzinco.
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    in Tenochtitlan.
    16. Atemoztli: for the Tlaloques, sacrifice by decapitation.
    17. Tititl: for Yacatecuhtli, Ilamatecuhtli, and Tona-Cozcamiauh. Sacrifice by heart extraction then decapitation at the Templo Mayor, Yacatecuhtli-Iteopan, Huitzilincuatec-Iteopan, and Tlaxico.
    18. Izcalli: for Ixcozauhqui-Xiuhtecuhtli, Nancotlaceuhqui, and Cihuatontli. Sacrifice of ixipltas of Xiuhtecuhtli, and women every four years, performed at night at Tzonmolco.
    ClickClick this link
    The Rituals of Daily Aztec Life
    Many rituals were performed on a smaller scale in courtyards outside homes. Many of these courtyards contained smaller replicas of great temples, and were a sacrifice may not have occurred in someone's home courtyard, Aztec people were able to perform self-sacrifice or bloodletting to the gods (6).
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  3. page More information about the Aztecs edited ... Aztec Warfare. In In addition, religions ... page on Mayan Maya religion. Check ..…
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    Aztec Warfare.
    In

    In
    addition, religions
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    page on MayanMaya religion. Check
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    page on MayanMaya Religion.
    Here are some links to other aspects of New World Civilizations being studies in this class:
    Schenker's Page on Andean Warfare
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  4. page Religions of Other Great Civilizations edited ... Deming's Page on Pre-Angkor Religion in Southeast Asia Gutierrez's Page on Religious Practice…
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    Deming's Page on Pre-Angkor Religion in Southeast Asia
    Gutierrez's Page on Religious Practices in India
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    Page on MayanMaya Religion
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Monday, December 6

  1. page The Temples and Rituals edited ... The Aztec ruler, or Tlatoani ("one who speaks") was present at all major rituals, an…
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    The Aztec ruler, or Tlatoani ("one who speaks") was present at all major rituals, and offered copal (an incense-like resin) to the Gods. He was responsible for the maintenace of all the city's temples, and was in charge of making sure all rituals were conducted in the proper way. There was a tlatoani in each of the provinces, but one Huy Tlatoani as the Aztec supreme ruler. The Huy Tlatoani was thought to be the person through which Huitzilopochtli speaks and sponsored and led most of the state rituals. When a new Huey Tlatoani (supreme ruler) was chosen, a series of rituals took place in his inauguration. When the tlatoani was absent, the cihuacoatl (a male "woman serpent" named after the Goddess Cihuacoatl, meaning prime-minister or second in command) stood in for him. Religion and state were not separate in Aztec society and tlatoani were the top priests on the top rung of society (5). The Huy Tlatoani had many important roles in the Aztec State as head of the Aztec government, but that is a whole other paper that unfortunately no one picked for this class.
    Works Cited:
    (1)1. Katz, Friedrich.
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    URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/649866
    (2)

    2.
    Moctezuma, Eduardo
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    Stable URL:http://www.jstor.org/stable/1464276
    (3)

    3.
    Read, Kay
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    URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40015027
    (4)

    4.
    Burland, C.
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    London: Orbis.
    (5)

    5.
    Aguilar-Moreno, Manuel.
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    on File.
    (6)

    6.
    Gonlin, Nancy,
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  2. page Human Sacrifice edited ... Some have researched that cannibalism may have been performed by people as a need for protein …
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    Some have researched that cannibalism may have been performed by people as a need for protein in their diet, but this does not match with the solely religious principles of sacrifice to begin with.If human sacrifice only occurred in a religious context, then it wouldn't happen in a ecological context for a need for meat. Other reason presented that the Aztecs sacrificed to neutralize violence in the community, and again, this would not match with the religious reasons widely accepted (3). Bernard R. Ortiz de Montellano wrote a paper called "Aztec Cannibalism: An Ecological Necessity?" which examined all the proposed evidence for cannibalism for protein and refuted all of it (6). There just is not enough valid evidence to support this claim.
    Were they the only ones?
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    the world.
    (1)

    1.
    Burland, C.
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    London: Orbis.
    (2)

    2.
    Katz, Friedrich.
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    URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/649866
    (3)

    3.
    Aguilar-Moreno, Manuel.
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    on File.
    (4)

    4.
    Harris, Marvin.
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    Random House.
    (5)

    5.
    Graulich, Michel.
    Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3176544
    (6)6. Ortiz de
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    URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1746929
    (7)

    7.
    Gruzinski, Serge.
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    France: Unesco.
    (8)

    8.
    Brundage, Burr
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  3. page Gods and Myth edited ... 1. Pohl, John M. D, and Claire L. Lyons. 2010. The Aztec Pantheon and the Art of Empire. Los A…
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    1. Pohl, John M. D, and Claire L. Lyons. 2010. The Aztec Pantheon and the Art of Empire. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, Print.
    2. http://www.indians.org/welker/mexmain1.htm
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    Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1464276URL:http://www.jstor.org/stable/1464276
    4. León Portilla, Miguel. 1971. Aztec thought and culture; a study of the ancient Nahuatl mind. The Civilization of the American Indian series, 67. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
    5. Burland, C. A., and Werner Forman. 1985. The Aztecs: gods and fate in Ancient Mexico. Echoes of the ancient world. London: Orbis.
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    7:20 am
  4. page The Temples and Rituals edited ... Works Cited: (1) Katz, Friedrich. Apr.,1958. The Evolution of Aztec Society: Past & Prese…
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    Works Cited:
    (1) Katz, Friedrich. Apr.,1958. The Evolution of Aztec Society: Past & Present, No. 13, pp. 14-25 Oxford University Press on behalf of The Past and Present Society. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/649866
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    Eduardo Matos. Dec.,Dec 1985. Archaeology
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    Mayor of Tenochtitlan:Tenochtitlan. Journal of
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    Academy of Religion, Vol. 53, No. 4,Religion 53(4):797-813, 75th AnniversaryMeetingAnniversary Meeting of the
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    Academy of Religion, pp. 797-813Religion. Oxford University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1464276URL:http://www.jstor.org/stable/1464276
    (3) Read, Kay A. The Fleeting Moment: Cosmogony, Eschatology, and Ethics in Aztec Religion and Society The Journal of Religious Ethics, Vol. 14, No. 1 (Spring, 1986), pp. 113-138 Journal of Religious Ethics, Inc Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40015027
    (4) Burland, C. A., and Werner Forman. 1985. The Aztecs: gods and fate in Ancient Mexico. Echoes of the ancient world. London: Orbis.
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  5. page Works Cited edited ... Katz, Friedrich. Apr.,1958. The Evolution of Aztec Society: Past & Present, No. 13, pp. 14…
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    Katz, Friedrich. Apr.,1958. The Evolution of Aztec Society: Past & Present, No. 13, pp. 14-25 Oxford University Press on behalf of The Past and Present Society. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/649866
    León Portilla, Miguel. 1971. Aztec thought and culture; a study of the ancient Nahuatl mind. The Civilization of the American Indian series, 67. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
    ...
    Eduardo Matos. Dec 1985. Archaeology &
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